According to WHO, the creation of the vaccine will take at least a year. After its development, it is necessary to confirm the effectiveness and safety for humans through appropriate tests on volunteers.
Illustration / REUTERS
The world continues to fight the coronavirus, which killed almost 100 thousand people. While governments are tightening quarantines, drug companies are working hard to create a vaccine against COVID-19.
As he writes RBC-Ukraine, already 70 countries are researching a coronavirus vaccine.
In early January, Chinese scientists decrypted the Sars-CoV-2 virus genome, which causes COVID-19 disease. This made it possible to start developing a vaccine.
Currently, about 70 countries have joined the search for a medicine, including 20 different companies and laboratories. On April 6, the World Health Organization announced the acceleration of the research process of the drug from coronavirus.
When will the medicine for COVID-19 appear
According to WHO, the creation of the vaccine will take at least a year. After its development, it is necessary to confirm the effectiveness and safety for humans through appropriate tests on volunteers. Then it takes time to produce the drug for mass use.
US infectious disease specialists predicted the deadline for receiving the vaccine by the spring of 2021, i.e. until the next season of incidence. Several samples are now undergoing the first phase of testing, after which a patient will be tested for harmlessness for a long period of time.
Inovio, an American pharmaceutical company, has launched clinical trials of a potential human coronavirus drug. 40 volunteers from Philadelphia and Kansas City are participating in vaccine testing.
Drug safety data will be obtained in the summer. If successful, by the end of the year the company plans to produce 1 million doses of the vaccine.
Also in the United States, testing of another likely vaccine for COVID-19 called PittCoVacc has been completed. The drug was tested in mice. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is currently awaiting approval to begin human testing.
The principle of action of the drug is similar to flu vaccines – the patient is injected with particles of viral protein, so that he forms immunity.
In mice, the number of antibodies to the virus increased within 14 days after vaccination. The advantage of PittCoVacc is that it can be created on an industrial scale and does not require refrigeration during transportation. However, it takes about a year to test the drug.
COVID-19 drug prototypes successfully tested in animals
In Turkey, tests of a vaccine variant on laboratory mice have been completed. The drug was administered to animals using microneedles on a patch. The rodent immune system responded to it by producing antibodies. Soon, Turkish scientists will test the effect of this vaccine on volunteers.
In Australia they are experiencing two types of drugs – vector and recombinant DNA vaccines. They were developed at Oxford University and Inovio Pharmaceutical. The action of the samples is studied on ferrets, and the first results are expected by early summer. After that, the National Science Agency of Australia will evaluate the safety of the vaccine for humans.
German scientists have also made progress in testing animal coronavirus vaccines. They were able to develop an inhibitor that can prevent the propagation of SARS-CoV-2. Testing was successful on mice and cell cultures. At the same time, researchers believe that it will take several years to develop an inhibitor-based drug for treating patients with coronavirus.
In Spain, a prototype vaccine from COVID-19 may appear by the end of April. Several laboratories already have significant achievements in working on drug options, and development at the National Center for Biotechnology is also ongoing.
Polish researchers managed to create a drug that can reduce the activity of coronavirus. A chemical compound called chitosan-based HTCC binds to the corona SARS-CoV-2 protein and then blocks the interaction of the protein with the cell receptor. The HTCC test was successful in animals, and it is planned to test in humans.
Italian scientists began testing animal vaccine samples at the end of March. The drug was developed by Takis based on a fragment of the genetic material of the virus. When satisfactory results are obtained, human testing will begin in the fall.
It is worth noting that in France they are testing a method of treating coronavirus with transfusion of blood plasma of recovered patients. 200 volunteers took part in the testing, 60 of them were ill with COVID-19.
French scientists are also exploring the drug Hemo2life to combat the complication of coronavirus – pneumonia. The drug is based on the hemoglobin of marine worms. It is capable of delivering 40 times more oxygen than human hemoglobin. Testing will be conducted on 10 volunteers.
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