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Tuesday, August 11, 2020

How vaccines work and develop

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Questions and Answers: How Vaccines Work and Are Developed


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and this is the principle of vaccines. It is like all the benefits of the infection. You know, you will no longer have the infection. Hopefully, in the future, without any pain, you know the miserable symptoms of the infection. So a vaccine is really, like a kind of Ah, a pseudo virus for the body. It looks like a virus or part of a virus on the body. A little out of your mind, you know, respond appropriately and say, Oh my God, I was infected with a virus. Let me marinate my defenses on the body they have two types of defenses that it produces against a virus or vaccine. First of all, it makes antibodies. I think most people have heard of these blood soluble proteins that can recognize and stick to the outside of a virus when they do, that virus is now coated and can no longer function. It can no longer enter cells and therefore into the other type of piece of our immune response. Equally important is what we call T cell response. And these are part of your white blood cells. over it. They can actually go around and somehow kill all the cells that could currently be infected with the virus which without factory A produces new viruses. So antibodies on T cells together, the two types of immune response. Clean the virus from your body hoping for a good vaccine. What it does is make your body. Those two types of defense think it’s under attack. So it’s a really interesting and extremely unique situation we find ourselves in because normally when you make a vaccine, in a sense you look at it. You know, there are several types of vaccines you can do. So we have it as a menu. You know, we have things we call dead viruses, which are literally that you take a virus and kill it, and then you inject it into the body. It can cause an infection because it is dead, but again it can feel the body thinking that you have been infected or that we may have some types of vaccines that actually are instead of being the whole virus. I’m just a piece of it. So, you know, all cartoons, I think it’s now known if the Corona virus. It is this spiky thing covered by these red lots. I don’t know who chose that color. And kind. It’s a little nice those patches on the outside, which we call the peak protein. Those are a very important part of the virus because they allow the virus to attach to a new cell and create a hole in that sale. So some types of vaccines are a vaccine called a subunit, and they are literally the peak protein. So alone, you know, obviously this can’t cause. And in fact, I think it’s just a small piece of the virus. But since it is normally found outside the virus, if the body, after receiving that peak protein, makes antibodies against it, these antibodies will not only act against the peak protein vaccine. But they lost a cross-reaction with the spike protein on any riel virus with which you could be infected. So this is another way you can think of making a vaccine that you know is safe. Is that it is not a virus it is only a part of it, but it commits an immune response that can therefore actually be effective against the rial virus due to this truly unique situation where we have the opportunity to make the viruses hidden to really speed up the process . Now that he’s not taking shortcuts they weren’t. We are not skipping a step that we normally take to demonstrate efficacy or demonstrate safety. But what we can do is a kind of telescope. Everything makes things faster on the only loser in this situation, frankly, it’s money. Let me give you an example. You know, if I was a biotechnology company, I was going to get a vaccine against a certain disease, you know, it’s an expensive process, so I would like to take it one step at a time, you know, first of all, try it in a very small format Maybe I entered it in a mouse, to see if it works. I would wait for those results. So I run the next experiment. In a way, I go step by step by ticking the boxes. Looks like it’s running in a growing series of experiments? Does it seem safe to face it on this? You know, global crisis, we have what’s allowed. Scientists and pharmaceutical companies and governments to do is just say OK, how? Let’s throw money on this. Let’s do all these experiments simultaneously. We will not wait to see if it works on Experiment One before starting the experiment and then what could happen if I knew where he is lucky? We do all these experiments a little while continuing somehow simultaneously and we get a job of three or five years in six months. And if it fails, you know, whatever we’ve lost its kind of money right now, I’m fine with that. You know, we need to speed things up. It will cost a lot. And much of what people are experiencing may not be able to escape. But heavens, it doesn’t matter. As long as one or more of the different strategies people try and give us something that can work. I think we won’t let you know perfect. Be the enemy of good in our race for a vaccine. I fully expect that what will happen is that we will have several vaccine candidates who look pretty nice and maybe some of them will be better in different groups of people than others. Maybe they won’t all be perfect. Maybe the wheels. Satel. You know, Christmas 2024 is a vaccine that works really well only with people under the age of 60, but it’s good enough in them. You know, whatever we get, we’ll start implementing it. You know, I expect we’ll probably have two points vaccine vaccine 1.0. Oh, as we learn more, we improve and fill any gaps that we may have honestly assumed about something, we knew, we were sure it was safe and that it has some effectiveness in some people. You know, I wouldn’t really be my sleeve for this. I think if I went, if I had been one of the first to adopt the vaccine, if I had entered a trial, even though I was pretty sure it would have given me some protection, I would not have stopped wearing a mask. I mean, hell, you know the consequences of being potentially so devastating for us. Why you should really take a long period of time to figure out how effective these vaccines are, you know, it’s very likely that we will find that, you know, maybe we just fix a number. 80% of people develop a fairly strong immune response. It was a consequence of that vaccine that really protected them. Maybe we have people who aren’t fully protected from the vaccine, but if they take Cove, it’s asymptomatic or it’s very mild. You know what? Would be great. Everything is better than what we currently have, so I think we will learn. But I would like. I don’t expect this to be a home run with the first vaccines out the door. And then the other thing, Dave, is that what we don’t know is, even if we get a really robust immune response that’s highly protective in a large group of people, we don’t know how long it will last. In no way does Teoh short-circuit those experiments. We won’t know if immunity lasts a year or two years until one or two years have passed. There is certainly a concern that precisely because of the nature of these viruses about the way our immune systems interact normally with them. There is a reasonable concern that immunity will last only a couple of years. So I could see your future, so maybe we should get a Corona virus vaccine and you have to take it every year or every two years as a booster just to maintain your immunity. And again, I’m fine with that. No record with my flu shot. I will bring the two together. Yes, so this virus doesn’t change much. You know, one of anyone who invented this virus. OK, they lost a trick that, as if it were a terrible virus, is super contagious. It could be asymptomatic people who can then spread it. And of course, as we know in some people, it can have absolutely devastating consequences. But the trick he lost is that it’s not really everything that doesn’t change so much. So unlike some viruses such as influenza and HIV, where their ability to mutate allows them to constantly keep one step ahead of our vaccine efforts, I don’t see this happening with this virus. It’s a nice vanilla virus. This kind of doesn’t change much. So I think once we have a vaccine, it will work. If the virus starts moving a little and changes slightly, it would be an easy solution to go back and then the vaccine slightly to keep track of it. Well, Paula, thank you. I could talk to you all day, but I won’t. Uh, one of these days we will have to make a story that involves me in the interview with you, but about your cool rest for TCO I also find it fascinating. But we’ll do it another day. Thanks so much. Thistle is likely to be aired today within any population of people. There will always be some people who cannot have a vaccine, especially people who are immune compromised. You know, they are more sensitive to vaccines and, frankly, they may not give a good immune response even if they are vaccinated. So in order to protect those people. And this also includes infants, you know, older people to protect those members of our society, we need a large number of people who, you know, are vaccinated so that there is no outbreak of this virus. And I think we’ve seen it quite dramatically recently with measles. We didn’t know that some groups, you know, of school age. Children are not buying the measles shop and, consequently, we are starting to take measles like 2020. And these are the United States of America and measles should be unheard of. . But instead we are getting these little blazes. So I hope people understand that, you know, a responsibility that I think we have is as members of this society is to get a vaccine not only, you know, to protect us, but to protect vulnerable people, a bulge.

Questions and Answers: How Vaccines Work and Are Developed

There is new hope that a COVID-19 vaccine will be available later this year. But what does it take to develop a vaccine? USC professor Paula Cannon, who has experience with HIV and Ebola, explains what it takes to develop a vaccine. In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, Cannon said officials have eased the restrictions so that researchers can develop a vaccine faster than before. He also explained how the new coronavirus is different from the flu, which would make a vaccine more useful for containing outbreaks. See the questions and answers in the video above.

There is new hope that a COVID-19 vaccine will be available later this year.

But what does it take to develop a vaccine?

USC professor Paula Cannon, who has experience with HIV and Ebola, explains what it takes to develop a vaccine.

In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, Cannon said officials have eased the restrictions so that researchers can develop a vaccine faster than before.

He also explained how the novel coronavirus is different from the flu, which would make a vaccine more useful in containing outbreaks.

See the questions and answers in the video above.

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